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‘The Walking Dead’ Comic Is Getting a Zombie-Inspired Blood Orange IPA

‘The Walking Dead’ Comic Is Getting a Zombie-Inspired Blood Orange IPA


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This beer is intended to prepare you for the upcoming zombie apocalypse

This is the label for The Walking Dead's Blood Orange IPA.

The Walking Dead comic, published by Skybound Entertainment, is getting an official beer. The announcement was made on July 24, and the beer will be made with Terrapin Beer Co., which is based in Athens, Georgia. This comic series inspired the AMC television show.

Fans can look forward to a blood orange IPA made from red India pale ale and brewed with blood orange peel. It is described as containing a “horrific amount of hops” and “will have you prepared for the upcoming Zombie Apocalypse.”

The blood orange IPA will contain 6.7 percent alcohol by volume. There is no official release date yet.

Terrapin is known for making crazy seasonal and “side project” beers. For Halloween, they feature Moo-Hoo Chocolate Milk Stout with cocoa nibs and shells. Limited-time side project brews include a peanut butter and jelly-flavored porter called Liquid Lunch.

Back in March 2014, Dock Street Brewing Co. released a Walking Dead-themed beer with smoked goat brains.

The Walking Dead television series is entering its sixth season and premieres on October 11.


Getting slow in their old age the ATC crew gets this podcast up a little late. Actually Ryan had some file loss emergency, but all is well after some work. NOTE: This episode is a completely unedited recording session. So enjoy this unique view into their recording process. (It will likely become a regular thing…because it’s SO much easier to put together).

In this episode the guys talk about the phenomenon of Old Man Strength and who are the best old men. Men, being much like wine, sometimes get better with age.

Thanks to the listeners who suggested good old men, they may not have listened, but still.

The episode ends with a slightly scoring muddled, but still entertaining game of Chad vs. Shawn in trying to identify the voices of old dudes.

For an upcoming episode the guys will discuss the best drunken characters, if you have any suggestions.

Spread the sickness!

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Saturday, July 6, 2013

Seattle International Beerfest 2013 Day 1

Day 1 proved to be an excellent kickoff to the beerfest.  Our professional beer drinker status was secured when we were able to  taste beers for 5 1/2 hours and still left the festival on our feet and relatively sober.

List of beers from day 1:
Bainbridge Hoptopus - ok
Pike Space Needle anniversary IPa - excellent hop flavor and aroma
Chickanut Rauch Bier - subtle smokiness
Pike XXXXX Stout
De Garre Tripel - strong.
Sound brewery Monk's Indiscretion - a little fruit and a bit of hops,  this is best so far
Rueben's Brew Imperial Rye IPA
Silver City Whoop Pass - alright, lots of hop aroma but missing in malts
Uinta brewery Hop Notch IPA - alright
Green Flash Le Freak
Boneyard Hop Venom - refreshingly good
Big Al Brewery Big Bertha
Old Lompoc Old Tavern Rat - meh


Contents

Stevie's grandfather, Thomas Lee Vaughan, married Laura Belle LaRue and moved to Rockwall County, Texas, where they lived by sharecropping. [1] [nb 1]

Stevie's father, Jimmie Lee Vaughan, was born on September 6, 1921. [3] Jimmie, also known as Jim and Big Jim, dropped out of school at age sixteen and enlisted in the U.S. Navy during World War II. After his discharge, he married Martha Jean (née Cook 1928–2009) [4] on January 13, 1950. [5] They had a son, Jimmie, in 1951. Stephen was born at Methodist Hospital on October 3, 1954, in Dallas, Texas. Big Jim secured a job as an asbestos worker, an occupation that involved rigorous manual effort. The family moved frequently, living in other states such as Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Oklahoma before ultimately moving to the Oak Cliff section of Dallas. A shy and insecure boy, Vaughan was deeply affected by his childhood experiences. His father struggled with alcohol abuse and often terrorized his family and friends with his bad temper. In later years, Vaughan recalled that he had been a victim of his father's violence. [6] His father died on August 27, 1986, exactly four years before Vaughan himself. [7]

First instruments Edit

In the early 1960s, Vaughan's admiration for his brother Jimmie resulted in him trying different instruments such as the drums and saxophone. [8] [nb 2] In 1961, for his seventh birthday, Vaughan received his first guitar, a toy from Sears with Western motif. [10] [nb 3] Learning by ear, he diligently committed himself, following along to songs by the Nightcaps, particularly "Wine, Wine, Wine" and "Thunderbird". [12] [nb 4] He listened to blues artists such as Albert King, Otis Rush, and Muddy Waters, and rock guitarists such as Jimi Hendrix and Lonnie Mack, as well as jazz guitarists including Kenny Burrell. [14] In 1963, he acquired his first electric guitar, a Gibson ES-125T, as a hand-me-down from Jimmie. [15]

Soon after he acquired the electric guitar, Vaughan joined his first band, the Chantones, in 1965. [16] Their first show was at a talent contest held in Dallas' Hill Theatre, but after realizing that they could not perform a Jimmy Reed song in its entirety, Vaughan left the band and joined the Brooklyn Underground, playing professionally at local bars and clubs. [16] He received Jimmie's Fender Broadcaster, which he later traded for an Epiphone Riviera. [17] When Jimmie left home at age sixteen, Vaughan's apparent obsession with the instrument caused a lack of support from his parents. [18] Miserable at home, he took a job at a local hamburger stand, where he washed dishes and dumped trash for seventy cents an hour. After falling into a barrel of grease, he grew tired of the job and quit to devote his life to a music career. [19]

Early years Edit

In May 1969, after leaving the Brooklyn Underground, Vaughan joined a band called the Southern Distributor. [20] He had learned the Yardbirds' "Jeff's Boogie" and played the song at the audition. Mike Steinbach, the group's drummer, commented: "The kid was fourteen. We auditioned him on 'Jeff's Boogie,' really fast instrumental guitar, and he played it note for note." [21] Although they played pop rock covers, Vaughan conveyed his interest in the addition of blues songs to the group's repertoire he was told that he wouldn't earn a living playing blues music and he and the band parted ways. [22] Later that year, bassist Tommy Shannon walked into a Dallas club and heard Vaughan playing guitar. Fascinated by the skillful playing, which he described as "incredible even then", Shannon borrowed a bass guitar and the two jammed. [23] [nb 5] Within a few years, they began performing together in a band called Krackerjack. [24]

In February 1970, Vaughan joined a band called Liberation, which was a nine-piece group with a horn section. Having spent the past month briefly playing bass with Jimmie in Texas Storm, he had originally auditioned as bassist. Impressed by Vaughan's guitar playing, Scott Phares, the group's original guitarist, modestly became the bassist. [25] In mid-1970, they performed at the Adolphus Hotel in downtown Dallas, where ZZ Top asked them to perform. During Liberation's break, Vaughan jammed with ZZ Top on the Nightcaps song "Thunderbird". Phares later described the performance: "they tore the house down. It was awesome. It was one of those magical evenings. Stevie fit in like a glove on a hand." [26]

Attending Justin F. Kimball High School during the early 1970s, Vaughan's late-night shows contributed to his neglect in his studies, including music theory he would often sleep during class. [27] His pursuit of a musical career was disapproved of by many of the school's administrators but he was also encouraged by many people, including his art teacher, to strive for a career in art. [28] [nb 6] In his sophomore year, he attended an evening class for experimental art at Southern Methodist University, but left when it conflicted with rehearsal. [28] Vaughan later spoke of his dislike of the school and recalled having received daily notes from the principal about his grooming. [29]

First recordings Edit

In September 1970, Vaughan made his first studio recordings with the band Cast of Thousands, which included future actor Stephen Tobolowsky. They recorded two songs, "Red, White and Blue" and "I Heard a Voice Last Night", for a compilation album, A New Hi, that featured various teenage bands from Dallas. [30] In late January 1971, feeling confined by playing pop hits with Liberation, Vaughan formed his own band, Blackbird. After growing tired of the Dallas music scene, he dropped out of school and moved with the band to Austin, Texas, which had more liberal and tolerant audiences. There, Vaughan initially took residence at the Rolling Hills Club, a local blues venue that would later become the Soap Creek Saloon. Blackbird played at several clubs in Austin and opened shows for bands such as Sugarloaf, Wishbone Ash, and Zephyr, but could not maintain a consistent lineup. [31] In early December 1972, Vaughan left Blackbird and joined Krackerjack he performed with them for less than three months. [32]

In March 1973, Vaughan joined Marc Benno's band, the Nightcrawlers, after meeting Benno at a jam session years before. [33] The band featured vocalist Doyle Bramhall, who met Vaughan when he was twelve years old. [34] The next month, the Nightcrawlers recorded an album at Sunset Sound Recorders in Hollywood for A&M Records. While the album was rejected by A&M, it included Vaughan's first songwriting efforts, "Dirty Pool" and "Crawlin'". [35] Soon afterward, he and the Nightcrawlers traveled back to Austin without Benno. [36] In mid-1973, they signed a contract with Bill Ham, manager for ZZ Top, and played various gigs across the South, though many of them were disastrous. [37] Ham left the band stranded in Mississippi without any way to make it back home and demanded reimbursement from Vaughan for equipment expenses Ham was never reimbursed. [38] [nb 7]

In 1975, Vaughan joined a six-piece band called Paul Ray and the Cobras which included guitarist Val Swierczewski and saxophonist Joe Sublett. [39] For the next two-and-a-half years, he earned a living performing weekly at a popular venue in town, the Soap Creek Saloon, and ultimately the newly opened Antone's, widely known as Austin's "home of the blues". [40] [nb 8] In late 1976, Vaughan recorded a single with them, "Other Days" as the A-side and "Texas Clover" as the B-side. Playing guitar on both tracks, the single was released on February 7, 1977. [42] In March, readers of the Austin Sun voted them as Band of the Year. [43] In addition to playing with the Cobras, Vaughan jammed with many of his influences at Antone's, including Buddy Guy, Hubert Sumlin, Jimmy Rogers, Lightnin' Hopkins, and Albert King. [44]

Vaughan toured with the Cobras during much of 1977, but near the end of September, after they decided to strive for a mainstream musical direction, he left the band and formed Triple Threat Revue, which included singer Lou Ann Barton, bassist W. C. Clark, and drummer Fredde Pharaoh. [45] In January 1978, they recorded four songs in Austin, including Vaughan's composition "I'm Cryin'". The thirty-minute audio recording marks the only known studio recording of the band. [46]

Double Trouble Edit

In mid-May 1978, Clark left to form his own group and Vaughan renamed the band Double Trouble, taken from the title of an Otis Rush song. [47] Following the recruitment of bassist Jackie Newhouse, Pharaoh quit in July, and was briefly replaced by Jack Moore, who had moved to Texas from Boston he performed with the band for about two months. [48] Vaughan then began looking for a drummer and soon after, he met Chris Layton through Sublett, who was his roommate. Layton, who had recently parted ways with Greezy Wheels, was taught by Vaughan to play a shuffle rhythm. When Vaughan offered Layton the position, he agreed. [49] In early July, Vaughan befriended Lenora Bailey, known as "Lenny", who became his girlfriend, and ultimately his wife. The marriage was to last for six and a half years. [50] [nb 9]

In early October 1978, Vaughan and Double Trouble earned a frequent residency performing at one of Austin's most popular nightspots, the Rome Inn. [52] During a performance, Edi Johnson, an accountant at Manor Downs, noticed Vaughan. [52] She remembered: "I'm not an authority on music—it's whatever turned me on—but this did." [53] She recommended him to Manor Downs owner Frances Carr and general manager Chesley Millikin, who was interested in managing artists, and saw Vaughan's musical potential. After Barton quit Double Trouble in mid-November 1979, Millikin signed Vaughan to a management contract. [54] Vaughan also hired Robert "Cutter" Brandenburg as road manager, whom he had met in 1969. [55] Addressing him as "Stevie Ray", Brandenburg convinced Vaughan to use his middle name on stage. [56]

In October 1980, bassist Tommy Shannon attended a Double Trouble performance at Rockefeller's in Houston. Shannon, who was playing with Alan Haynes at the time, participated in a jam session with Vaughan and Layton halfway through their set. Shannon later commented: "I went down there that night, and I'll never forget this: it was like, when I walked in the door and I heard them playing, it was like a revelation. 'That's where I want to be that's where I belong, right there.' During the break, I went up to Stevie and told him that. I didn't try to sneak around and hide it from the bass player [Jackie Newhouse]—I didn't know if he was listening or not. I just really wanted to be in that band. I sat in that night and it sounded great." [57] Almost three months later, when Vaughan offered Shannon the position, he readily accepted. [58]

Drug charge and trial Edit

On December 5, 1979, while Vaughan was in a dressing room before a performance in Houston, an off-duty police officer arrested him after witnessing his usage of cocaine near an open window. [59] He was formally charged with cocaine possession and subsequently released on $1,000 bail. [60] Double Trouble was the opening act for Muddy Waters, who said about Vaughan's substance abuse: "Stevie could perhaps be the greatest guitar player that ever lived, but he won't live to get 40 years old if he doesn't leave that white powder alone." [61] The following year, he was required to return on January 16 and February 29 for court appearances. [62]

During the final court date, on April 17, 1980, Vaughan was sentenced with two years' probation and was prohibited from leaving Texas. [63] Along with a stipulation of entering treatment for drug abuse, he was required to "avoid persons or places of known disreputable or harmful character" he refused to comply with both of these orders. [64] After a lawyer was hired, his probation officer had the sentence revised to allow him to work outside of the state. [63] The incident later caused him to refuse maid service while staying in hotels during concert tours. [65]

Montreux Jazz Festival Edit

Although popular in Texas at the time, Double Trouble failed to gain national attention. The group's luck progressed when record producer Jerry Wexler recommended them to Claude Nobs, organizer of the Montreux Jazz Festival. He insisted the festival's blues night would be great with Vaughan, whom he called "a jewel, one of those rarities who comes along once in a lifetime", and Nobs agreed to book Double Trouble on July 17. [66]

Vaughan opened with a medley arrangement of Freddie King's song "Hide Away" and his own fast instrumental composition, "Rude Mood". Double Trouble went on to perform renditions of Larry Davis' "Texas Flood", Hound Dog Taylor's "Give Me Back My Wig", and Albert Collins' "Collins Shuffle", as well as three original compositions: "Pride and Joy", "Love Struck Baby", and "Dirty Pool". The set ended with boos from the audience. [67] People's James McBride wrote:

He seemed to come out of nowhere, a Zorro-type figure in a riverboat gambler's hat, roaring into the '82 Montreux festival with a '59 Stratocaster at his hip and two flame-throwing sidekicks he called Double Trouble. He had no album, no record contract, no name, but he reduced the stage to a pile of smoking cinders and, afterward, everyone wanted to know who he was." [68] [nb 10]

According to road manager Don Opperman: "the way I remember it, the 'ooos' and the 'boos' were mixed together, but Stevie was pretty disappointed. Stevie [had] just handed me his guitar and walked off stage, and I'm like, 'are you coming back?' There was a doorway back there the audience couldn't see the guys, but I could. He went back to the dressing room with his head in his hands. I went back there finally, and that was the end of the show." [67] According to Vaughan: "it wasn't the whole crowd [that booed]. It was just a few people sitting right up front. The room there was built for acoustic jazz. When five or six people boo, wow, it sounds like the whole world hates you. They thought we were too loud, but shoot, I had four army blankets folded over my amp, and the volume level was on 2. I'm used to playin' on 10!" [71] The performance was filmed and later released on DVD in September 2004.

On the following night, Double Trouble was booked in the lounge of the Montreux Casino, with Jackson Browne in attendance. Browne jammed with Double Trouble until the early morning hours and offered them free use of his personal recording studio in downtown Los Angeles. In late November the band accepted his offer and recorded ten songs in two days. [72] While they were in the studio, Vaughan received a telephone call from David Bowie, who met him after the Montreux performance, and he invited him to participate in a recording session for his next studio album, Let's Dance. [73] In January 1983, Vaughan recorded guitar on six of the album's eight songs, including the title track and "China Girl". [74] The album was released on April 14, 1983 and sold over three times as many copies as Bowie's previous album. [75]

National success Edit

In mid-March 1983, Gregg Geller, vice president of A&R at Epic Records, signed Double Trouble to the label at the recommendation of record producer John Hammond. [76] Soon afterward, Epic financed a music video for "Love Struck Baby", which was filmed at the Cherry Tavern in New York City. Vaughan recalled: "we changed the name of the place in the video. Four years ago I got married in a club where we used to play all the time called the Rome Inn. When they closed it down, the owner gave me the sign, so in the video we put that up behind me on the stage." [77]

With the success of Let's Dance, Bowie requested Vaughan as the featured instrumentalist for the upcoming Serious Moonlight Tour, realizing that he was an essential aspect of the album's groundbreaking success. [78] In late April, Vaughan began rehearsals for the tour in Las Colinas, Texas. [79] When contract renegotiations for his performance fee failed, Vaughan abandoned the tour days before its opening date, and he was replaced by Earl Slick. [80] Vaughan commented: "I couldn't gear everything on something I didn't really care a whole lot about. It was kind of risky, but I really didn't need all the headaches." [81] Although contributing factors were widely disputed, Vaughan soon gained major publicity for quitting the tour. [82]

On May 9, the band performed at The Bottom Line in New York City, where they opened for Bryan Adams, with Hammond, Mick Jagger, John McEnroe, Rick Nielsen, Billy Gibbons, and Johnny Winter in attendance. [83] Brandenburg described the performance as "ungodly": "I think Stevie played every lick as loud and as hard and with as much intensity as I've ever heard him." [84] The performance earned Vaughan a positive review published in the New York Post, asserting that Double Trouble outperformed Adams. [85] "Fortunately, Bryan Adams, the Canadian rocker who is opening arena dates for Journey, doesn't headline too often", wrote Martin Porter, who claimed that after the band's performance, the stage had been "rendered to cinders by the most explosively original showmanship to grace the New York stage in some time." [84]

Texas Flood Edit

After acquiring the recordings from Browne's studio, Double Trouble began assembling the material for a full-length LP. The album, Texas Flood, opens with the track "Love Struck Baby", which was written for Lenny on their "love-struck day". [50] He composed "Pride and Joy" and "I'm Cryin'" for one of his former girlfriends, Lindi Bethel, and are both musically similar, but their lyrics are two different perspectives of their prior relationship. [86] Along with covers of Howlin' Wolf, the Isley Brothers, and Buddy Guy, the album included Vaughan's cover of Larry Davis' "Texas Flood", a song which he became strongly associated with. [87] "Lenny" served as a tribute to his wife, which he composed at the end of their bed. [88]

Texas Flood featured cover art by illustrator Brad Holland, who is known for his artwork for Playboy and The New York Times. [89] Originally envisioned with Vaughan sitting on a horse depicting a promotable resemblance, Holland painted an image of him leaning against a wall with a guitar, using a photograph as a reference. [90] Released on June 13, 1983, Texas Flood peaked at number 38 and ultimately sold half a million copies. [89] While Rolling Stone editor Kurt Loder asserted that Vaughan did not possess a distinctive voice, according to AllMusic senior editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine, the release was a "monumental impact". [91] Billboard described it as "a guitar boogie lovers delight". [92] Agent Alex Hodges commented: "No one knew how big that record would be, because guitar players weren't necessarily in vogue, except for some that were so established they were undeniable . he was one of the few artists that was recouped on every record in a short period of time." [93]

On June 16, Vaughan gave a performance at Tango nightclub in Dallas, which celebrated the album's release. Assorted VIPs attended the performance, including Ted Nugent, Sammy Hagar, and members of The Kinks and Uriah Heep. [94] Jack Chase, vice president of marketing for Epic, recalled: "the coming-out party at Tango was very important it was absolutely huge. All the radio station personalities, DJs, program directors, all the retail record store owners and the important managers, press, all the executives from New York came down—about seven hundred people. We attacked in Dallas first with Q102-FM and [DJ] Redbeard. We had the Tango party—it was hot. It was the ticket." [94] The Dallas Morning News reviewed the performance, starting with the rhetorical question "what if Stevie Ray Vaughan had an album release party and everybody came? It happened Thursday night at Tango. . The adrenalin must have been gushing through the musicians' veins as they performed with rare finesse and skill." [94]

Following a brief tour in Europe, Hodges arranged an engagement for Double Trouble as The Moody Blues' opening act during a two-month tour of North America. [nb 11] Hodges stated that many people disliked the idea of Double Trouble opening for The Moody Blues, but asserted that a common thread which both bands shared was "album-oriented rock". [95] Shannon described the tour as "glorious": "Our record hadn't become that successful yet, but we were playing in front of coliseums full of people. We just went out and played, and it fit like a glove. The sound rang through those big coliseums like a monster. People were going crazy, and they had no idea who we were!" [95] After appearing on the television series Austin City Limits, the band played a sold-out concert at New York City's Beacon Theatre. Variety wrote that their ninety-minute set at the Beacon "left no doubt that this young Texas musician is indeed the 'guitar hero of the present era.'" [96]

Couldn't Stand the Weather Edit

In January 1984, Double Trouble began recording their second studio album, Couldn't Stand the Weather, at the Power Station, with John Hammond as executive producer and engineer Richard Mullen. [97] Layton later recalled working with Hammond: "he was kind of like a nice hand on your shoulder, as opposed to someone that jumped in and said, 'let's redo this, let's do that more.' He didn't get involved in that way at all. He was a feedback person." [97] As the sessions began, Vaughan's cover of Bob Geddins' "Tin Pan Alley" was recorded while audio levels were being checked. Layton remembers the performance: ". we did probably the quietest version we ever did up 'til that point. We ended it and [Hammond] said 'that's the best that song will ever sound,' and we went 'we haven't even got sounds, have we?' He goes, 'that doesn't matter. That's the best you'll ever do that song.' We tried it again five, six, seven times- I can't even remember. But it never quite sounded like it did that first time." [98]

During recording sessions, Vaughan began experimenting with other combinations of musicians, including Fran Christina and Stan Harrison, who played drums and saxophone respectively on the jazz instrumental, "Stang's Swang". [99] Jimmie Vaughan played rhythm guitar on his cover of Guitar Slim's "The Things That I Used to Do" and the title track, the latter of which Vaughan carries a worldly message in his lyrics. [100] According to musicologist Andy Aledort, Vaughan's guitar playing throughout the song is marked by steady rhythmic strumming patterns and improvised lead lines, with a distinctive R&B and soul single-note riff, doubled in octaves by guitar and bass. [101]

Couldn't Stand the Weather was released on May 15, 1984, and two weeks later it had rapidly outpaced the sales of Texas Flood. [102] [nb 12] It peaked at number 31 and spent 38 weeks on the charts. [100] The album includes Vaughan's cover of Jimi Hendrix's song, "Voodoo Child (Slight Return)", which provoked inevitable comparisons to Hendrix. [103] According to AllMusic editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine, Couldn't Stand the Weather "confirmed that the acclaimed debut was no fluke, while matching, if not bettering, the sales of its predecessor, thereby cementing Vaughan's status as a giant of modern blues." [104] According to authors Joe Nick Patoski and Bill Crawford, the album "was a major turning point in Stevie Ray Vaughan's development" and Vaughan's singing improved. [99]

Carnegie Hall Edit

On October 4, 1984, Vaughan headlined a performance at Carnegie Hall that included many guest musicians. [105] For the second half of the concert, he added Jimmie as rhythm guitarist, drummer George Rains, keyboardist Dr. John, Roomful of Blues horn section, and featured vocalist Angela Strehli. [106] [nb 13] The ensemble rehearsed for less than two weeks before the performance, and despite the solid dynamics of Double Trouble for the first half of the performance, according to Patoski and Crawford, the big band concept never entirely took form. [108] [nb 14] Before arriving at the engagement, the venue sold out, which made Vaughan extremely excited and nervous as he did not calm down until halfway through the third song. [112] A benefit for the T.J. Martell Foundation's work in leukemia and cancer research, he was an important draw for the event. [113] As his scheduled time slot drew closer, he indicated that he preferred traveling to the venue by limousine to avoid being swarmed by fans on the street the band took the stage around 8:00 p.m. [114] The audience of 2,200 people, which included Vaughan's wife, family and friends, transformed the venue into what Stephen Holden of The New York Times described as "a whistling, stomping roadhouse". [115]

Introduced by Hammond as "one of the greatest guitar players of all time", Vaughan opened with "Scuttle Buttin'", wearing a custom-made mariachi suit he described as a "Mexican tuxedo". [116] [nb 15] Double Trouble went on to perform renditions of the Isley Brothers' "Testify", The Jimi Hendrix Experience's "Voodoo Child (Slight Return)", "Tin Pan Alley", Elmore James' "The Sky Is Crying", and W. C. Clark's "Cold Shot", along with four original compositions including "Love Struck Baby", "Honey Bee", "Couldn't Stand the Weather", and "Rude Mood". During the second half of the performance, Vaughan performed covers by Larry Davis, Buddy Guy, Guitar Slim, Albert King, Jackie Wilson, and Albert Collins. The set ended with Vaughan performing solo renditions of "Lenny" and "Rude Mood". [118]

The Dallas Times-Herald wrote of the performance at Carnegie Hall as "was full of stomping feet and swaying bodies, kids in blue jeans hanging off the balconies, dancing bodies that clogged the aisles." [119] [nb 16] The New York Times asserted that, despite the venue's "muddy" acoustics, their performance was "filled with verve", and Vaughan's playing was "handsomely displayed". [115] Jimmie Vaughan later commented: "I was worried the crowd might be a little stiff. Turned out they're just like any other beer joint." [112] Vaughan commented: "We won't be limited to just the trio, although that doesn't mean we'll stop doing the trio. I'm planning on doing that too. I ain't gonna stay in one place. If I do, I'm stupid." [112] The performance was recorded and later released as an official live LP. The album was released on July 29, 1997 by Epic Records it was ultimately certified gold. [120]

Immediately after the concert, Vaughan attended a private party at a downtown club in New York, which was sponsored by MTV, where he was greeted by an hour's worth of supporters. [121] On the following day, Double Trouble made an appearance at a record store in Greenwich Village, where they signed autographs for fans. [122] [nb 17] In late October 1984, the band toured Australia and New Zealand, which included one of their first appearances on Australian television—on Hey Hey It's Saturday—where they performed "Texas Flood", and an interview on Sounds. [123] On November 5 and 9, they played sold-out concerts at the Sydney Opera House. [124] Upon returning to the U.S., Double Trouble went on a brief tour in California. Soon afterward, Vaughan and Lenny went to the island of Saint Croix, on the U.S. Virgin Islands in the Caribbean Sea, where they had spent some time vacationing in December. [125] The next month, Double Trouble flew to Japan, where they appeared for five performances, including at Kōsei Nenkin Kaikan in Osaka. [126]

Soul to Soul Edit

In March 1985, recording for Double Trouble's third studio album, Soul to Soul, began at the Dallas Sound Lab. [127] As the sessions progressed, Vaughan became increasingly frustrated with his own lack of inspiration. [128] He was also allowed a relaxed pace of recording the album, which contributed to a lack of focus due to excesses in alcohol and other drugs. [129] Roadie Byron Barr later recalled: "the routine was to go to the studio, do dope, and play ping-pong." [130] Vaughan, who found it increasingly difficult to be able to play rhythm guitar parts and sing at the same time, wanted to add another dimension to the band, so he hired keyboardist Reese Wynans to record on the album he joined the band soon thereafter. [131]

During the album's production, Vaughan appeared at the Houston Astrodome on April 10, 1985, where he performed a slide guitar rendition of the U.S. national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner" his performance was met with booing. [132] Upon leaving the stage, Vaughan acquired an autograph from former player for the New York Yankees, Mickey Mantle. [133] Astrodome publicist Molly Glentzer wrote in the Houston Press: "as Vaughan shuffled back behind home plate, he was only lucid enough to know that he wanted Mickey Mantle's autograph. Mantle obliged. 'I never signed a guitar before.' Nobody asked Vaughan for his autograph. I was sure he'd be dead before he hit 30." [132] Critics associated his performance with Jimi Hendrix's rendition at Woodstock in 1969, yet Vaughan disliked this comparison: "I heard they even wrote about it in one of the music magazines and they tried to put the two versions side by side. I hate that stuff. His version was great." [134]

Released on September 30, 1985, Soul to Soul peaked at number 34 and remained on the Billboard 200 through mid-1986, eventually certified gold. [135] [nb 18] Critic Jimmy Guterman of Rolling Stone wrote: "there's some life left in their blues rock pastiche it's also possible that they've run out of gas." [137] According to Patoski and Crawford, sales of the album "did not match Couldn't Stand the Weather, suggesting Stevie Ray and Double Trouble were plateauing". [137] Vaughan commented: "as far as what's on there song-wise, I like the album a lot. It meant a lot to us what we went through to get this record. There were a lot of odds and we still stayed strong. We grew a lot with the people in the band and immediate friends around us we learned a lot and grew a lot closer. That has a lot to do with why it's called [Soul to Soul]." [138]

Live Alive Edit

After touring for nine and a half months, Epic requested a fourth album from Double Trouble as part of their contractual obligation. [139] In July 1986, Vaughan decided that they would record the LP, Live Alive, during three live appearances in Austin and Dallas. [140] On July 17 and 18, the band performed sold-out concerts at the Austin Opera House, and July 19 at the Dallas Starfest. [141] They used recordings of these concerts to assemble the LP, which was produced by Vaughan. [142] Shannon was backstage before the Austin concert and predicted to new manager Alex Hodges that both Vaughan and himself were "headed for a brick wall". [143] Guitarist Denny Freeman attended the Austin performances he called the shows a "musical mess, because they would go into these chaotic jams with no control. I didn't know what exactly was going on, but I was concerned." [143] Both Layton and Shannon remarked that their work schedule and drugs were causing the band to lose focus. [144] According to Wynans: "Things were getting illogical and crazy." [143]

The Live Alive album was released on November 17, 1986, and the only official live Double Trouble LP made commercially available during Vaughan's lifetime, though it never appeared on the Billboard 200 chart. [145] Though many critics claimed that most of the album was overdubbed, engineer Gary Olazabal, who mixed the album, asserted that most of the material was recorded poorly. [146] Vaughan later admitted that it was not one of his better efforts he recalled: "I wasn't in very good shape when we recorded Live Alive. At the time, I didn't realize how bad a shape I was in. There were more fix-it jobs done on the album than I would have liked. Some of the work sounds like [it was] the work of half-dead people. There were some great notes that came out, but I just wasn't in control nobody was." [147]

Drugs and alcohol Edit

In 1960, when Vaughan was six years old, he began stealing his father's drinks. Drawn in by its effects, he started making his own drinks and this resulted in alcohol dependence. He explained: "that's when I first started stealing daddy's drinks. Or when my parents were gone, I'd find the bottle and make myself one. I thought it was cool . thought the kids down the street would think it was cool. That's where it began, and I had been depending on it ever since." [148] According to the authors Joe Nick Patoski and Bill Crawford: "In the ensuing twenty-five years, he had worked his way through the Physicians' Desk Reference before finding his poisons of preference—alcohol and cocaine." [149]

While Vaughan asserted that he first experienced the effects of cocaine when a doctor prescribed him a liquid solution of the stimulant as a nasal spray, according to Patoski and Crawford, the earliest that Vaughan is known to have ingested the drug is in 1975, while performing with the Cobras. [151] Before that, Vaughan had briefly used other drugs such as cannabis, methamphetamine, and Quaaludes, the brand name for methaqualone. [152] After 1975, he regularly drank whiskey and used cocaine, particularly mixing the two substances together. [149] According to Hopkins, by the time of Double Trouble's European tour in September 1986, "his lifestyle of substance abuse had reached a peak, probably better characterized as the bottom of a deep chasm." [153]

At the height of Vaughan's substance abuse, he drank 1 US quart (0.95 L) of whiskey and used one-quarter of an ounce (7 g) of cocaine each day. [154] Personal assistant Tim Duckworth explained: "I would make sure he would eat breakfast instead of waking up drinking every morning, which was probably the worst thing he was doing." [155] According to Vaughan: "it got to the point where if I'd try to say "hi" to somebody, I would just fall apart crying. It was like solid doom." [143]

In September 1986, Double Trouble traveled to Denmark for a one-month tour of Europe. [156] During the late night hours of September 28, Vaughan became ill after a performance in Ludwigshafen, Germany, suffering from near-death dehydration, for which he received medical treatment. [154] The incident resulted in his checking into The London Clinic under the care of Dr. Victor Bloom, who warned him that he was a month away from death. [157] After staying in London for more than a week, he returned to the United States and entered Peachford Hospital in Atlanta, where he spent four weeks in rehabilitation Stevie checked into rehab in Austin. [158]

Live Alive tour Edit

In November 1986, following his departure from rehab, Vaughan moved back into his mother's Glenfield Avenue house in Dallas, which is where he had spent much of his childhood. [159] During this time, Double Trouble began rehearsals for the Live Alive tour. Although Vaughan was nervous about performing after achieving sobriety, he received positive reassurance. [160] Wynans later recalled: "Stevie was real worried about playing after he'd gotten sober. he didn't know if he had anything left to offer. Once we got back out on the road, he was very inspired and motivated." [161] The tour began on November 23 at Towson State University, which was Vaughan's first performance with Double Trouble after rehab. [160] On December 31, 1986, they played a concert at Atlanta's Fox Theatre, which featured encore performances with Lonnie Mack. [162] [nb 19]

As the tour progressed, Vaughan was longing to work on material for his next LP, but in January 1987, he filed for a divorce from Lenny, which restricted him from any projects until the proceedings were finalized. [163] This prevented him from writing and recording songs for almost two years, but Double Trouble wrote the song "Crossfire" with Bill Carter and Ruth Ellsworth. Layton recalled: "we wrote the music, and they had to write the lyrics. We had just gotten together Stevie was unable to be there at that time. He was in Dallas doing some things, and we just got together and started writing some songs. That was the first one we wrote." [164] On August 6, 1987, Double Trouble appeared at the Austin Aqua Festival, where they played to one of the largest audiences of their career. [165] According to biographer Craig Hopkins, as many as 20,000 people attended the concert. [165] Following a month-long tour as the opening act for Robert Plant in May 1988, which included a concert at Toronto's Maple Leaf Gardens, the band was booked for a European leg, which included 22 performances, and ended in Oulu, Finland on July 17. This would be Vaughan's last concert appearance in Europe. [166]

In Step Edit

After Vaughan's divorce from Lenora "Lenny" Darlene Bailey became final, recording for Double Trouble's fourth and final studio album, In Step, began at Kiva Studios in Memphis, Tennessee, working with producer Jim Gaines and co-songwriter Doyle Bramhall. [167] Initially, he had doubts about his musical and creative abilities after achieving sobriety, but he gained confidence as the sessions progressed. Shannon later recalled: "In Step was, for him, a big growing experience. In my opinion, it's our best studio album, and I think he felt that way, too." [161] Bramhall, who had also entered rehab, wrote songs with Vaughan about addiction and redemption. [168] According to Vaughan, the album was titled In Step because "I'm finally in step with life, in step with myself, in step with my music." [169] The album's liner notes include the quote "'thank God the elevator's broken," a reference to the twelve-step program proposed by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). [170]

After the In Step recording sessions moved to Los Angeles, Vaughan added horn players Joe Sublett and Darrell Leonard, who played saxophone and trumpet respectively on both "Crossfire" and "Love Me Darlin ' ". [171] Shortly before the album's production was complete, Vaughan and Double Trouble appeared at a presidential inaugural party in Washington, D.C. for George H. W. Bush. [172] In Step was released on June 13, 1989, and eight months later, it was certified gold. [173] The album was Vaughan's most commercially successful release and his first one to win a Grammy Award. [174] It peaked at number 33 on the Billboard 200, spending 47 weeks on the chart. [175] In Step included the song, "Crossfire", which was written by Double Trouble, Bill Carter, and Ruth Ellsworth it became his only number one hit. [161] The album also included one of his first recordings to feature the use of a Fuzz Face on Vaughan's cover of the Howlin' Wolf song, "Love Me Darlin ' ". [176]

In July 1989, Neil Perry, a writer for Sounds magazine, wrote: "the album closes with the brow-soothing swoon of 'Riviera Paradise,' a slow, lengthy guitar and piano workout that proves just why Vaughan is to the guitar what Nureyev is to ballet." [177] According to music journalist Robert Christgau, Vaughan was "writing blues for AA. he escapes the blues undamaged for the first time in his career." [178] In October 1989, the Boca Raton News described Vaughan's guitar solos as "determined, clear-headed and downright stinging" and his lyrics as "tension-filled allegories". [179]

On August 27, 1990, at 12:50 a.m. (CDT), Vaughan and members of Eric Clapton's touring entourage played an all-star encore jam session at Alpine Valley Music Theatre in Alpine Valley Resort in East Troy, Wisconsin. They then left for Midway International Airport in Chicago in a Bell 206B helicopter, the most common way for acts to enter and exit the venue, as there is only one road in and out, heavily used by fans.

The helicopter crashed into a nearby ski hill shortly after takeoff. Vaughan and the four others on board—pilot Jeff Brown, agent Bobby Brooks, bodyguard Nigel Browne, and tour manager Colin Smythe—died. [180] The helicopter was identified as being owned by Chicago-based company Omniflight Helicopters. Initial reports of the crash inaccurately claimed that Clapton had also been killed.

According to findings from an inquest conducted by the coroner's office in Elkhorn, all five victims were killed instantly.

The investigation determined the aircraft departed in foggy conditions with visibility reportedly under two miles, according to a local forecast. The National Transportation Safety Board report stated: "As the third helicopter was departing, it remained at a lower altitude than the others, and the pilot turned southeasterly toward rising terrain. Subsequently, the helicopter crashed on hilly terrain about three fifths of a mile from the takeoff point." Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) records showed that Brown was qualified to fly by instruments in a fixed-wing aircraft, but not in a helicopter. Toxicology tests performed on the victims revealed no traces of drugs or alcohol in their systems.

Vaughan's funeral service was held on August 31, 1990, at Laurel Land Cemetery in Dallas, Texas. His wooden casket quickly became adorned with bouquets of flowers. An estimated 3,000 mourners joined a procession led by a white hearse. Among those at the public ceremony were Jeff Healey, Charlie Sexton, ZZ Top, Colin James, Stevie Wonder, Bonnie Raitt and Buddy Guy. Vaughan's grave marker reads: "Thank you . for all the love you passed our way."

Vaughan's music was rooted in blues, rock, and jazz. He was influenced by Jimi Hendrix, Albert King, Lonnie Mack, B.B. King, Freddie King, Albert Collins, Johnny "Guitar" Watson, Buddy Guy, Howlin' Wolf, Otis Rush, Guitar Slim, Chuck Berry, and Muddy Waters. According to nightclub owner Clifford Antone, who opened Antone's in 1975, Vaughan jammed with Albert King at Antone's in July 1977 and it almost "scared him to death", saying that "it was the best I've ever saw Albert or the best I ever saw Stevie". [181] While Albert King had a substantial influence on Vaughan, Jimi Hendrix was Vaughan's greatest inspiration. Vaughan declared: "I love Hendrix for so many reasons. He was so much more than just a blues guitarist—he played damn well any kind of guitar he wanted. In fact I'm not sure if he even played the guitar—he played music." [182]

He was also influenced by such jazz guitarists as Django Reinhardt, Wes Montgomery, Kenny Burrell, and George Benson. [183]

In 1987, Vaughan listed Lonnie Mack first among the guitarists he had listened to, both as a youngster and as an adult. [184] Vaughan observed that Mack was "ahead of his time" [182] and said, "I got a lot of my fast stuff from Lonnie". [185] On another occasion, Vaughan said that he had learned tremolo picking and vibrato from Mack and that Mack had taught him to "play guitar from the heart." [186] Mack recalled his first meeting with Vaughan in 1978:

We was in Texas looking for pickers, and we went out to see the Thunderbirds. Jimmie was saying, 'Man, you gotta hear my little brother. He plays all your [songs].' He was playing a little place called the Rome Inn, and we went over there and checked him out. As it would be, when I walked in the door, he was playing 'Wham!' And I said, 'Dadgum.' He was playing it right. I'd been playing it wrong for a long time and needed to go back and listen to my original record. That was in '78, I believe. [187]

Vaughan's relationship with another Texas blues legend, Johnny Winter, was a little more complex. Although they met several times, and often played sessions with the same musicians or even performed the same material, as in the case of Boot Hill, Vaughan always refrained from acknowledging Winter in any form. In his biography, "Raisin' Cain", Winter says that he was unnerved after reading Vaughan stating in an interview that he never met or knew Johnny Winter. "We even played together over at Tommy Shannon's house one time." Vaughan settled the issue in 1988 on the occasion of a blues festival in Europe where both he and Winter were on the bill, explaining that he has been misquoted and that "Every musician in Texas knows Johnny and has learned something from him". [188] Asked to compare their playing styles in an interview in 2010, Winter admitted that "mine's a little bit rawer, I think." [189]

Guitars Edit

Vaughan owned and used a variety of guitars during his career. His guitar of choice, and the instrument that he became most associated with, was the Fender Stratocaster, his favorite being a 1963 body with a 1962 neck and pickups dated from 1959. This is why Vaughan usually referred to his Stratocaster as a, "1959 Strat." He explained why he favored this guitar in a 1983 interview: "I like the strength of its sound. Any guitar I play has got to be pretty versatile. It's got a big, strong tone and it'll take anything I do to it." [190] Vaughan also referred to this instrument as his "first wife," or, "Number One." [191] Another favourite guitar, was a slightly later Strat he named 'Lenny' after his wife, Lenora. While at a local pawn shop in 1980, Vaughan had noticed this particular guitar, a 1965 Stratocaster that had been refinished in red, with the original sunburst finish peeking through. It also had a 1910 Mandolin inlay just below the bridge. The pawn shop was asking $300 for it, which was way more than Vaughan had at the time. Lenny saw how badly he wanted this guitar, so she got six of their friends to chip in $50 each, and bought it for him. The guitar was presented to him on his birthday in 1980, and that night, after bringing "Lenny" (the guitar, and wife) home with him, he wrote the song, "Lenny." [ citation needed ] He started using a borrowed Stratocaster during high school and used Stratocasters predominantly in his live performances and recordings, although he did play other guitars, including custom guitars. [ citation needed ]

One of the custom guitars—nicknamed "Main"—was built by James Hamilton of Hamiltone Guitars in Buffalo, New York. It was a gift from Billy Gibbons of ZZ Top. Gibbons had commissioned Hamilton to build the guitar in 1979. There were some delays, including having to re-do the mother of pearl inlay of Vaughan's name on the fretboard when he changed his stage name from Stevie Vaughan to Stevie Ray Vaughan. The guitar was presented to him by Jim Hamilton on April 29, 1984. Hamilton recalls that Stevie Ray Vaughan was so happy with the guitar that he played it that night at Springfest on the University of Buffalo campus. It remained one of the main guitars he used on stage and in studio. Vaughan made some alterations to the guitar, including replacing the bronze color Gibson knobs with white Fender knobs, as he preferred the ribbing on the Fender knobs. The pickups had to be changed after the guitar was used in the "Couldn't Stand the Weather" video, in which Stevie and "Main" were drenched with water, and the pickups were ruined. The guitar was also used in the "Cold Shot" video. [ citation needed ]

Vaughan bought many Stratocasters and gave some away as gifts. A sunburst Diplomat Strat-style guitar was purchased by Vaughan and given to his girlfriend Janna Lapidus to learn to play on. [192] Vaughan used a custom set of uncommonly heavy strings, gauges .013, .015, .019, .028, .038, .058, and tuned a half-step below standard tuning. [193] He played with so much tension that it was not uncommon for him to separate his fingernail from the quick movement along the strings. The owner of an Austin club recalled Vaughan coming into the office between sets to borrow super glue, which he used to keep fingernail split from widening while he continued to play. The super glue was suggested by Rene Martinez, who was Stevie's guitar technician. Martinez eventually convinced Stevie to change to slightly lighter strings. He preferred a guitar neck with an asymmetrical profile (thicker at the top) which was more comfortable for his thumb-over style of playing. Heavy use of the vibrato bar necessitated frequent replacements Vaughan often had his roadie, Byron Barr, obtain custom stainless steel bars made by Barr's father. [194]

Vaughan was also photographed playing a Rickenbacker Capri, a National Duolian, Epiphone Riviera, Gibson Flying V, as well as several other models. [195] Vaughan used a Gibson Johnny Smith to record "Stang's Swang", and a Guild 12-string acoustic for his performance on MTV Unplugged in January 1990. [192] On June 24, 2004, one of Vaughan's Stratocasters, the aforementioned "Lenny" strat, was sold at an auction to benefit Eric Clapton's Crossroads Centre in Antigua the instrument was bought by Guitar Center for $623,500. [196]

Amplifiers and effects Edit

Vaughan was a catalyst in the revival of vintage amplifiers and effects during the 1980s. His loud volume and use of heavy strings required powerful and robust amplifiers. Vaughan used two black-face Fender Super Reverbs, which were crucial in shaping his clear overdriven sound. He would often blend other amps with the Super Reverbs, including black-face Fender Vibroverbs, [192] and brands such as Dumble, and Marshall, which he used for his clean sound. [197]

While his mainstay effects were the Ibanez Tube Screamer and a Vox wah-wah pedal, [198] Vaughan experimented with a range of effects. He used a Fender Vibratone, [192] designed as a Leslie speaker for electric guitars, and provided a warbling chorus effect, which can be heard on the track "Cold Shot". He used a vintage Dallas Arbiter Fuzz Face that can be heard on In Step, as well as an Octavia. [198] The Guitar Geek website provides a detailed illustration of Vaughan's 1985 equipment set up based on interviews with his guitar tech and effects builder, Cesar Diaz. [199]

Vaughan throughout his career revived blues rock and paved the way for many other artists. Vaughan's work continues to influence numerous blues, rock and alternative artists, including John Mayer, [200] Kenny Wayne Shepherd, [201] Mike McCready, [202] Albert Cummings, [203] Los Lonely Boys and Chris Duarte, among others. AllMusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine described Vaughan as "the leading light in American blues" and developed "a uniquely eclectic and fiery style that sounded like no other guitarist, regardless of genre". [204] In 1983, Variety magazine called Vaughan the "guitar hero of the present era". [205]

In the months that followed his death, Vaughan sold over 5.5 million albums in the United States. [206] On September 25, 1990, Epic released Family Style, an LP the Vaughan brothers cut at Ardent Studios in Memphis, Tennessee. The label released several promotional singles and videos for the collaborative effort. [207] In November 1990, CMV Enterprises released Pride and Joy, a collection of eight Double Trouble music videos. [208] Sony signed a deal with the Vaughan estate to obtain control of his back catalog, as well as permission to release albums with previously unreleased material and new collections of released work. [209] On October 29, 1991, The Sky Is Crying was released as Vaughan's first posthumous album with Double Trouble, and featured studio recordings from 1984 to 1985. [210] Other compilations, live albums, and films have also been released since his death.

On October 3, 1991, Texas governor Ann Richards proclaimed "Stevie Ray Vaughan Commemoration Day", during which a memorial concert was held at the Texas Theatre. [210] In 1993, a memorial statue of Vaughan was unveiled on Auditorium Shores and is the first public monument of a musician in Austin. [211] In September 1994, a Stevie Ray Vaughan Memorial Run for Recovery was held in Dallas the event was a benefit for the Ethel Daniels Foundation, established to help those in recovery from alcoholism and drug addiction who cannot afford treatment. [212]

In 1999, the Musicians' Assistance Program (later renamed MusiCares MAP Fund) created the "Stevie Ray Vaughan Award" to honor the memory of Vaughan and to recognize musicians for their devotion to helping other addicts struggling with the recovery process. [213] [214] The recipients include Eric Clapton, David Crosby, Steven Tyler, Alice Cooper, Ozzy Osbourne, Pete Townshend, Chris Cornell, Jerry Cantrell, Mike McCready, among others. [214]

In 1993, Martha Vaughan established the Stevie Ray Vaughan Memorial Scholarship Fund, awarded to students at W.E. Greiner Middle School in Oakcliff who intend to attend college and pursue the arts as a profession. [215]

Awards and honors Edit

Vaughan won five W. C. Handy Awards [216] and was posthumously inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame in 2000. [217] In 1985, he was named an honorary admiral in the Texas Navy. [218] Vaughan had a single number-one hit on the Hot Mainstream Rock Tracks chart for the song "Crossfire". [219] His album sales in the U.S. stand at over 15 million units. Family Style, released shortly after his death, won the 1991 Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Blues Album and became his best-selling, non-Double Trouble studio album with over a million shipments in the U.S. [206] In 2003, Rolling Stone ranked him seventh among the "100 Greatest Guitar Players of All Time". [220] He also became eligible for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2008, but did not appear on a nominations roster until 2014. [221] [222] He was inducted in the RRHOF alongside Double Trouble in 2015. [223] [224] Guitar World magazine ranked him eighth in its list of the 100 greatest guitarists.

In 1994 the city of Austin, Texas, erected the Stevie Ray Vaughan Memorial on the hiking trail beside Lady Bird Lake.


Monday, April 11, 2011

The Mad Man's Epic Beer Time: Czech'n up on Redhook's Pilsner

The Beer: Pilsner from Redhook Ale Brewery in Woodinville, Washington.

From the Brewer: Pilsner is brewed in a traditional Czech style and is the first pilsner Redhook Ale Brewery has ever released. It offers a very soft palate and malt flavors that are offset by a medium dose of destinct Czech hops to bring out its authentic flavors. The refreshing beer finishes with a clean, bright, thirst-quenching quality. Pilsner pairs nicely with barbecued chicken, bratwurst, spicy food, fresh fish, and green salad.

  • Style: Pilsner
  • ABV: 5.3%
  • IBUs: 25
  • Malts: Pale, Carapils, Caramel, Munich
  • Hops: Saaz
  • Yeast: Strain biologically goes back to Czech Republic
  • OG: 12.7
  • Extras: Aged at near freezing temps for four to six weeks.
  • Distribution: Arizona, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia, Washington
  • Availability: Year around
  • Beer Advocate: B- from users B+ from brothers
  • Rate Beer Score: 31% overall, 41% in style
  • Beer Tap TV Rapid Classification: Class I (Pure Flatwater)

Napoleon Dynamite reignited Tina Majorino's movie career

Bet you didn't know this fun fact: Tina Majorino played the adorably awkward character Deb in the 2004 film Napoleon Dynamite. The movie holds a very special place in her heart, too. As she gushed to Bello (via the Daily Mail), "I read Napoleon Dynamite and instantly I was like, 'I don't even care if I get it, I have to audition for this movie! I think I was 17 . and I was like, 'this is hilarious.'" She added, "That film was a huge lesson for me in following my gut. It was pure magic and 100% reignited my love of filmmaking."

The film remains one of the biggest cult classic comedies of the mid-2000s. An underdog in cinema, the movie had a budget of only $400,000, but it grossed about $44.5 million (via Box Office Mojo)! What made the film so endearing was that it was "so autobiographical," according to Jared Hess, the movie's co-writer and director. He told Rolling Stone that he based Majorino's innocent character partly on his wife, Jerusha Hess: "Her mom made her a dress when she was going to a middle school dance and she said, 'I hadn't really developed yet, so my mom overcompensated and made some very large, fluffy shoulders.' Some guy dancing with her patted the sleeves and actually said, 'I like your sleeves . they're real big.'"


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Contents

The word Halloween or Hallowe'en dates to about 1745 [32] and is of Christian origin. [33] The word "Hallowe'en" means "Saints' evening". [34] It comes from a Scottish term for All Hallows' Eve (the evening before All Hallows' Day). [35] In Scots, the word "eve" is even, and this is contracted to e'en or een. [36] Over time, (All) Hallow(s) E(v)en evolved into Hallowe'en. Although the phrase "All Hallows'" is found in Old English, "All Hallows' Eve" is itself not seen until 1556. [35] [37]

Gaelic influence

Today's Halloween customs are thought to have been influenced by folk customs and beliefs from the Celtic-speaking countries, some of which are believed to have pagan roots. [38] Jack Santino, a folklorist, writes that "there was throughout Ireland an uneasy truce existing between customs and beliefs associated with Christianity and those associated with religions that were Irish before Christianity arrived". [39] Historian Nicholas Rogers, exploring the origins of Halloween, notes that while "some folklorists have detected its origins in the Roman feast of Pomona, the goddess of fruits and seeds, or in the festival of the dead called Parentalia, it is more typically linked to the Celtic festival of Samhain, which comes from the Old Irish for 'summer's end'." [40]

Samhain ( / ˈ s ɑː w ɪ n , ˈ s aʊ ɪ n / ) was the first and most important of the four quarter days in the medieval Gaelic calendar and was celebrated on 31 October – 1 November [41] in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. [42] [43] A kindred festival was held at the same time of year by the Brittonic Celts, called Calan Gaeaf in Wales, Kalan Gwav in Cornwall and Kalan Goañv in Brittany a name meaning "first day of winter". For the Celts, the day ended and began at sunset thus the festival began on the evening before 7 November by modern reckoning (the half point between equinox and solstice). [44] Samhain is mentioned in some of the earliest Irish literature. The names have been used by historians to refer to Celtic Halloween customs up until the 19th century, [45] and are still the Gaelic and Welsh names for Halloween.

Samhain marked the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter or the 'darker half' of the year. [46] [47] Like Beltane/Calan Mai, it was seen as a liminal time, when the boundary between this world and the Otherworld thinned. This meant the Aos Sí (Connacht pronunciation / iː s ˈ ʃ iː / eess- SHEE , Munster /e:s ʃi:/), the 'spirits' or 'fairies', could more easily come into this world and were particularly active. [48] [49] Most scholars see the Aos Sí as "degraded versions of ancient gods [. ] whose power remained active in the people's minds even after they had been officially replaced by later religious beliefs". [50] The Aos Sí were both respected and feared, with individuals often invoking the protection of God when approaching their dwellings. [51] [52] At Samhain, it was believed that the Aos Sí needed to be propitiated to ensure that the people and their livestock survived the winter. Offerings of food and drink, or portions of the crops, were left outside for the Aos Sí. [53] [54] [55] The souls of the dead were also said to revisit their homes seeking hospitality. [56] Places were set at the dinner table and by the fire to welcome them. [57] The belief that the souls of the dead return home on one night of the year and must be appeased seems to have ancient origins and is found in many cultures throughout the world. [58] In 19th century Ireland, "candles would be lit and prayers formally offered for the souls of the dead. After this the eating, drinking, and games would begin". [59]

Throughout Ireland and Britain, the household festivities included rituals and games intended to foretell one's future, especially regarding death and marriage. [60] Apples and nuts were often used in these divination rituals. They included apple bobbing, nut roasting, scrying or mirror-gazing, pouring molten lead or egg whites into water, dream interpretation, and others. [61] Special bonfires were lit and there were rituals involving them. Their flames, smoke and ashes were deemed to have protective and cleansing powers, and were also used for divination. [46] In some places, torches lit from the bonfire were carried sunwise around homes and fields to protect them. [45] It is suggested that the fires were a kind of imitative or sympathetic magic – they mimicked the Sun, helping the "powers of growth" and holding back the decay and darkness of winter. [57] [62] [63] In Scotland, these bonfires and divination games were banned by the church elders in some parishes. [64] In Wales, bonfires were lit to "prevent the souls of the dead from falling to earth". [65] Later, these bonfires served to keep "away the devil". [66]

From at least the 16th century, [68] the festival included mumming and guising in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and Wales. [69] This involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food. It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf, similar to the custom of souling (see below). Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them. [70] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune". [71] In parts of southern Ireland, the guisers included a hobby horse. A man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses – some of which had pagan overtones – in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla' not doing so would bring misfortune. [72] In Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed. [69] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient festival included people in costume representing the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire. [68] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod. [69] In the late 19th and early 20th century, young people in Glamorgan and Orkney cross-dressed. [69]

Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and hobby horses were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions, they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers". [69] From at least the 18th century, "imitating malignant spirits" led to playing pranks in Ireland and the Scottish Highlands. Wearing costumes and playing pranks at Halloween spread to England in the 20th century. [69] Traditionally, pranksters used hollowed out turnips or mangel wurzels often carved with grotesque faces as lanterns. [69] By those who made them, the lanterns were variously said to represent the spirits, [69] or were used to ward off evil spirits. [73] [74] They were common in parts of Ireland and the Scottish Highlands in the 19th century, [69] as well as in Somerset (see Punkie Night). In the 20th century they spread to other parts of England and became generally known as jack-o'-lanterns. [69]

Christian influence

Today's Halloween customs are thought to have been influenced by Christian dogma and practices derived from it. [75] Halloween is the evening before the Christian holy days of All Hallows' Day (also known as All Saints' or Hallowmas) on 1 November and All Souls' Day on 2 November, thus giving the holiday on 31 October the full name of All Hallows' Eve (meaning the evening before All Hallows' Day). [76] Since the time of the early Church, [77] major feasts in Christianity (such as Christmas, Easter and Pentecost) had vigils that began the night before, as did the feast of All Hallows'. [78] These three days are collectively called Allhallowtide and are a time for honoring the saints and praying for the recently departed souls who have yet to reach Heaven. Commemorations of all saints and martyrs were held by several churches on various dates, mostly in springtime. [79] In 609, Pope Boniface IV re-dedicated the Pantheon in Rome to "St Mary and all martyrs" on 13 May. This was the same date as Lemuria, an ancient Roman festival of the dead, and the same date as the commemoration of all saints in Edessa in the time of Ephrem the Syrian. [80]

The feast of All Hallows', on its current date in the Western Church, may be traced to Pope Gregory III's (731–741) founding of an oratory in St Peter's for the relics "of the holy apostles and of all saints, martyrs and confessors". [81] [82] In 835, All Hallows' Day was officially switched to 1 November, the same date as Samhain, at the behest of Pope Gregory IV. [83] Some suggest this was due to Celtic influence, while others suggest it was a Germanic idea, [83] although it is claimed that both Germanic and Celtic-speaking peoples commemorated the dead at the beginning of winter. [84] They may have seen it as the most fitting time to do so, as it is a time of 'dying' in nature. [83] [84] It is also suggested that the change was made on the "practical grounds that Rome in summer could not accommodate the great number of pilgrims who flocked to it", and perhaps because of public health considerations regarding Roman Fever – a disease that claimed a number of lives during the sultry summers of the region. [85]

By the end of the 12th century they had become holy days of obligation across Europe and involved such traditions as ringing church bells for the souls in purgatory. In addition, "it was customary for criers dressed in black to parade the streets, ringing a bell of mournful sound and calling on all good Christians to remember the poor souls." [87] "Souling", the custom of baking and sharing soul cakes for all christened souls, [88] has been suggested as the origin of trick-or-treating. [89] The custom dates back at least as far as the 15th century [90] and was found in parts of England, Flanders, Germany and Austria. [58] Groups of poor people, often children, would go door-to-door during Allhallowtide, collecting soul cakes, in exchange for praying for the dead, especially the souls of the givers' friends and relatives. [90] [91] [92] Soul cakes would also be offered for the souls themselves to eat, [58] or the 'soulers' would act as their representatives. [93] As with the Lenten tradition of hot cross buns, Allhallowtide soul cakes were often marked with a cross, indicating that they were baked as alms. [94] Shakespeare mentions souling in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593). [95] On the custom of wearing costumes, Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognized by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities". [96]

It is claimed that in the Middle Ages, churches that were too poor to display the relics of martyred saints at Allhallowtide let parishioners dress up as saints instead. [97] [98] Some Christians continue to observe this custom at Halloween today. [99] Lesley Bannatyne believes this could have been a Christianization of an earlier pagan custom. [100] While souling, Christians would carry with them "lanterns made of hollowed-out turnips". [101] It has been suggested that the carved jack-o'-lantern, a popular symbol of Halloween, originally represented the souls of the dead. [102] On Halloween, in medieval Europe, fires served a dual purpose, being lit to guide returning souls to the homes of their families, as well as to deflect demons from haunting sincere Christian folk. [103] [104] Households in Austria, England and Ireland often had "candles burning in every room to guide the souls back to visit their earthly homes". These were known as "soul lights". [105] [106] [107] Many Christians in mainland Europe, especially in France, believed "that once a year, on Hallowe'en, the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival" known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration. [108] Christopher Allmand and Rosamond McKitterick write in The New Cambridge Medieval History that "Christians were moved by the sight of the Infant Jesus playing on his mother's knee their hearts were touched by the Pietà and patron saints reassured them by their presence. But, all the while, the danse macabre urged them not to forget the end of all earthly things." [109] This danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and may have been the origin of modern-day Halloween costume parties. [101] [110] [111]

In parts of Britain, these customs came under attack during the Reformation as some Protestants berated purgatory as a "popish" doctrine incompatible with their notion of predestination. Thus, for some Nonconformist Protestants, the theology of All Hallows' Eve was redefined without the doctrine of purgatory, "the returning souls cannot be journeying from Purgatory on their way to Heaven, as Catholics frequently believe and assert. Instead, the so-called ghosts are thought to be in actuality evil spirits. As such they are threatening." [106] Other Protestants maintained belief in an intermediate state, known as Hades (Bosom of Abraham), [112] and continued to observe the original customs, especially souling, candlelit processions and the ringing of church bells in memory of the dead. [76] [113] Mark Donnelly, a professor of medieval archaeology, and historian Daniel Diehl, with regard to the evil spirits, on Halloween, write that "barns and homes were blessed to protect people and livestock from the effect of witches, who were believed to accompany the malignant spirits as they traveled the earth." [114] In the 19th century, in some rural parts of England, families gathered on hills on the night of All Hallows' Eve. One held a bunch of burning straw on a pitchfork while the rest knelt around him in a circle, praying for the souls of relatives and friends until the flames went out. This was known as teen'lay. [115] Other customs included the tindle fires in Derbyshire and all-night vigil bonfires in Hertfordshire which were lit to pray for the departed. [116] The rising popularity of Guy Fawkes Night (5 November) from 1605 onward, saw many Halloween traditions appropriated by that holiday instead, and Halloween's popularity waned in Britain, with the noteworthy exception of Scotland. [117] There and in Ireland, they had been celebrating Samhain and Halloween since at least the early Middle Ages, and the Scottish kirk took a more pragmatic approach to Halloween, seeing it as important to the life cycle and rites of passage of communities and thus ensuring its survival in the country. [117]

In France, some Christian families, on the night of All Hallows' Eve, prayed beside the graves of their loved ones, setting down dishes full of milk for them. [105] On Halloween, in Italy, some families left a large meal out for ghosts of their passed relatives, before they departed for church services. [118] In Spain, on this night, special pastries are baked, known as "bones of the holy" (Spanish: Huesos de Santo) and put them on the graves of the churchyard, a practice that continues to this day. [119]

Spread to North America

Lesley Bannatyne and Cindy Ott write that Anglican colonists in the southern United States and Catholic colonists in Maryland "recognized All Hallow's Eve in their church calendars", [120] [121] although the Puritans of New England maintained strong opposition to the holiday, along with other traditional celebrations of the established Church, including Christmas. [122] Almanacs of the late 18th and early 19th century give no indication that Halloween was widely celebrated in North America. [123] It was not until mass Irish and Scottish immigration in the 19th century that Halloween became a major holiday in America, [123] confined to the immigrant communities during the mid-19th century. It was gradually assimilated into mainstream society and was celebrated coast to coast by people of all social, racial, and religious backgrounds by the first decade of the 20th century. [124] "In Cajun areas, a nocturnal Mass was said in cemeteries on Halloween night. Candles that had been blessed were placed on graves, and families sometimes spent the entire night at the graveside". [125] The yearly Greenwich Village Halloween Parade was begun in 1974 by puppeteer and mask maker Ralph Lee of Greenwich Village it is the world's largest Halloween parade and America's only major nighttime parade, attracting more than 60,000 costumed participants, two million spectators, and a worldwide television audience. [126]

Development of artifacts and symbols associated with Halloween formed over time. Jack-o'-lanterns are traditionally carried by guisers on All Hallows' Eve in order to frighten evil spirits. [102] [127] There is a popular Irish Christian folktale associated with the jack-o'-lantern, [128] which in folklore is said to represent a "soul who has been denied entry into both heaven and hell": [129]

On route home after a night's drinking, Jack encounters the Devil and tricks him into climbing a tree. A quick-thinking Jack etches the sign of the cross into the bark, thus trapping the Devil. Jack strikes a bargain that Satan can never claim his soul. After a life of sin, drink, and mendacity, Jack is refused entry to heaven when he dies. Keeping his promise, the Devil refuses to let Jack into hell and throws a live coal straight from the fires of hell at him. It was a cold night, so Jack places the coal in a hollowed out turnip to stop it from going out, since which time Jack and his lantern have been roaming looking for a place to rest. [130]

In Ireland and Scotland, the turnip has traditionally been carved during Halloween, [131] [132] but immigrants to North America used the native pumpkin, which is both much softer and much larger – making it easier to carve than a turnip. [131] The American tradition of carving pumpkins is recorded in 1837 [133] and was originally associated with harvest time in general, not becoming specifically associated with Halloween until the mid-to-late 19th century. [134]

The modern imagery of Halloween comes from many sources, including Christian eschatology, national customs, works of Gothic and horror literature (such as the novels Frankenstein and Dracula) and classic horror films (such as Frankenstein and The Mummy). [135] [136] Imagery of the skull, a reference to Golgotha in the Christian tradition, serves as "a reminder of death and the transitory quality of human life" and is consequently found in memento mori and vanitas compositions [137] skulls have therefore been commonplace in Halloween, which touches on this theme. [138] Traditionally, the back walls of churches are "decorated with a depiction of the Last Judgment, complete with graves opening and the dead rising, with a heaven filled with angels and a hell filled with devils", a motif that has permeated the observance of this triduum. [139] One of the earliest works on the subject of Halloween is from Scottish poet John Mayne, who, in 1780, made note of pranks at Halloween "What fearfu' pranks ensue!", as well as the supernatural associated with the night, "Bogies" (ghosts), influencing Robert Burns' "Halloween" (1785). [140] Elements of the autumn season, such as pumpkins, corn husks, and scarecrows, are also prevalent. Homes are often decorated with these types of symbols around Halloween. Halloween imagery includes themes of death, evil, and mythical monsters. [141] Black cats, which have been long associated with witches, are also a common symbol of Halloween. Black, orange, and sometimes purple are Halloween's traditional colors. [142]

Trick-or-treating is a customary celebration for children on Halloween. Children go in costume from house to house, asking for treats such as candy or sometimes money, with the question, "Trick or treat?" The word "trick" implies a "threat" to perform mischief on the homeowners or their property if no treat is given. [89] The practice is said to have roots in the medieval practice of mumming, which is closely related to souling. [143] John Pymm wrote that "many of the feast days associated with the presentation of mumming plays were celebrated by the Christian Church." [144] These feast days included All Hallows' Eve, Christmas, Twelfth Night and Shrove Tuesday. [145] [146] Mumming practiced in Germany, Scandinavia and other parts of Europe, [147] involved masked persons in fancy dress who "paraded the streets and entered houses to dance or play dice in silence". [148]

In England, from the medieval period, [149] up until the 1930s, [150] people practiced the Christian custom of souling on Halloween, which involved groups of soulers, both Protestant and Catholic, [113] going from parish to parish, begging the rich for soul cakes, in exchange for praying for the souls of the givers and their friends. [91] In the Philippines, the practice of souling is called Pangangaluwa and is practiced on All Hallow's Eve among children in rural areas. [21] People drape themselves in white cloths to represent souls and then visit houses, where they sing in return for prayers and sweets. [21]

In Scotland and Ireland, guising – children disguised in costume going from door to door for food or coins – is a traditional Halloween custom. [151] It is recorded in Scotland at Halloween in 1895 where masqueraders in disguise carrying lanterns made out of scooped out turnips, visit homes to be rewarded with cakes, fruit, and money. [132] [152] In Ireland, the most popular phrase for kids to shout (until the 2000s) was "Help the Halloween Party". [151] The practice of guising at Halloween in North America is first recorded in 1911, where a newspaper in Kingston, Ontario, Canada reported children going "guising" around the neighborhood. [153]

American historian and author Ruth Edna Kelley of Massachusetts wrote the first book-length history of Halloween in the US The Book of Hallowe'en (1919), and references souling in the chapter "Hallowe'en in America". [154] In her book, Kelley touches on customs that arrived from across the Atlantic "Americans have fostered them, and are making this an occasion something like what it must have been in its best days overseas. All Halloween customs in the United States are borrowed directly or adapted from those of other countries". [155]

While the first reference to "guising" in North America occurs in 1911, another reference to ritual begging on Halloween appears, place unknown, in 1915, with a third reference in Chicago in 1920. [156] The earliest known use in print of the term "trick or treat" appears in 1927, in the Blackie Herald, of Alberta, Canada. [157]

The thousands of Halloween postcards produced between the turn of the 20th century and the 1920s commonly show children but not trick-or-treating. [158] Trick-or-treating does not seem to have become a widespread practice in North America until the 1930s, with the first US appearances of the term in 1934, [159] and the first use in a national publication occurring in 1939. [160]

A popular variant of trick-or-treating, known as trunk-or-treating (or Halloween tailgating), occurs when "children are offered treats from the trunks of cars parked in a church parking lot", or sometimes, a school parking lot. [119] [161] In a trunk-or-treat event, the trunk (boot) of each automobile is decorated with a certain theme, [162] such as those of children's literature, movies, scripture, and job roles. [163] Trunk-or-treating has grown in popularity due to its perception as being more safe than going door to door, a point that resonates well with parents, as well as the fact that it "solves the rural conundrum in which homes [are] built a half-mile apart". [164] [165]

Halloween costumes are traditionally modeled after supernatural figures such as vampires, monsters, ghosts, skeletons, witches, and devils. [89] Over time, the costume selection extended to include popular characters from fiction, celebrities, and generic archetypes such as ninjas and princesses.

Dressing up in costumes and going "guising" was prevalent in Scotland and Ireland at Halloween by the late 19th century. [132] A Scottish term, the tradition is called "guising" because of the disguises or costumes worn by the children. [152] In Ireland the masks are known as 'false faces'. [166] Costuming became popular for Halloween parties in the US in the early 20th century, as often for adults as for children, and when trick-or-treating was becoming popular in Canada and the US in the 1920s and 1930s. [157] [167]

Eddie J. Smith, in his book Halloween, Hallowed is Thy Name, offers a religious perspective to the wearing of costumes on All Hallows' Eve, suggesting that by dressing up as creatures "who at one time caused us to fear and tremble", people are able to poke fun at Satan "whose kingdom has been plundered by our Saviour". Images of skeletons and the dead are traditional decorations used as memento mori. [168] [169]

"Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF" is a fundraising program to support UNICEF, [89] a United Nations Programme that provides humanitarian aid to children in developing countries. Started as a local event in a Northeast Philadelphia neighborhood in 1950 and expanded nationally in 1952, the program involves the distribution of small boxes by schools (or in modern times, corporate sponsors like Hallmark, at their licensed stores) to trick-or-treaters, in which they can solicit small-change donations from the houses they visit. It is estimated that children have collected more than $118 million for UNICEF since its inception. In Canada, in 2006, UNICEF decided to discontinue their Halloween collection boxes, citing safety and administrative concerns after consultation with schools, they instead redesigned the program. [170] [171]

Since the late 2010s, ethnic stereotypes as costumes have increasingly come under scrutiny in the United States. [172] Such and other potentially offensive costumes have been met with increasing public disapproval. [173] [174]

Pet costumes

According to a 2018 report from the National Retail Federation, 30 million Americans will spend an estimated $480 million on Halloween costumes for their pets in 2018. This is up from an estimated $200 million in 2010. The most popular costumes for pets are the pumpkin, followed by the hot dog, and the bumble bee in third place. [175]

There are several games traditionally associated with Halloween. Some of these games originated as divination rituals or ways of foretelling one's future, especially regarding death, marriage and children. During the Middle Ages, these rituals were done by a "rare few" in rural communities as they were considered to be "deadly serious" practices. [176] In recent centuries, these divination games have been "a common feature of the household festivities" in Ireland and Britain. [60] They often involve apples and hazelnuts. In Celtic mythology, apples were strongly associated with the Otherworld and immortality, while hazelnuts were associated with divine wisdom. [177] Some also suggest that they derive from Roman practices in celebration of Pomona. [89]

The following activities were a common feature of Halloween in Ireland and Britain during the 17th–20th centuries. Some have become more widespread and continue to be popular today. One common game is apple bobbing or dunking (which may be called "dooking" in Scotland) [178] in which apples float in a tub or a large basin of water and the participants must use only their teeth to remove an apple from the basin. A variant of dunking involves kneeling on a chair, holding a fork between the teeth and trying to drive the fork into an apple. Another common game involves hanging up treacle or syrup-coated scones by strings these must be eaten without using hands while they remain attached to the string, an activity that inevitably leads to a sticky face. Another once-popular game involves hanging a small wooden rod from the ceiling at head height, with a lit candle on one end and an apple hanging from the other. The rod is spun round and everyone takes turns to try to catch the apple with their teeth. [179]

Several of the traditional activities from Ireland and Britain involve foretelling one's future partner or spouse. An apple would be peeled in one long strip, then the peel tossed over the shoulder. The peel is believed to land in the shape of the first letter of the future spouse's name. [180] [181] Two hazelnuts would be roasted near a fire one named for the person roasting them and the other for the person they desire. If the nuts jump away from the heat, it is a bad sign, but if the nuts roast quietly it foretells a good match. [182] [183] A salty oatmeal bannock would be baked the person would eat it in three bites and then go to bed in silence without anything to drink. This is said to result in a dream in which their future spouse offers them a drink to quench their thirst. [184] Unmarried women were told that if they sat in a darkened room and gazed into a mirror on Halloween night, the face of their future husband would appear in the mirror. [185] However, if they were destined to die before marriage, a skull would appear. The custom was widespread enough to be commemorated on greeting cards [186] from the late 19th century and early 20th century.

Another popular Irish game was known as púicíní ("blindfolds") a person would be blindfolded and then would choose between several saucers. The item in the saucer would provide a hint as to their future: a ring would mean that they would marry soon clay, that they would die soon, perhaps within the year water, that they would emigrate rosary beads, that they would take Holy Orders (become a nun, priest, monk, etc.) a coin, that they would become rich a bean, that they would be poor. [187] [188] [189] [190] [191] The game features prominently in the James Joyce short story "Clay" (1914). [192] [193] [194]

In Ireland and Scotland, items would be hidden in food – usually a cake, barmbrack, cranachan, champ or colcannon – and portions of it served out at random. A person's future would be foretold by the item they happened to find for example, a ring meant marriage and a coin meant wealth. [195]

Up until the 19th century, the Halloween bonfires were also used for divination in parts of Scotland, Wales and Brittany. When the fire died down, a ring of stones would be laid in the ashes, one for each person. In the morning, if any stone was mislaid it was said that the person it represented would not live out the year. [45]

Telling ghost stories, listening to Halloween-themed songs and watching horror films are common fixtures of Halloween parties. Episodes of television series and Halloween-themed specials (with the specials usually aimed at children) are commonly aired on or before Halloween, while new horror films are often released before Halloween to take advantage of the holiday.

Haunted attractions are entertainment venues designed to thrill and scare patrons. Most attractions are seasonal Halloween businesses that may include haunted houses, corn mazes, and hayrides, [196] and the level of sophistication of the effects has risen as the industry has grown.

The first recorded purpose-built haunted attraction was the Orton and Spooner Ghost House, which opened in 1915 in Liphook, England. This attraction actually most closely resembles a carnival fun house, powered by steam. [197] [198] The House still exists, in the Hollycombe Steam Collection.

It was during the 1930s, about the same time as trick-or-treating, that Halloween-themed haunted houses first began to appear in America. It was in the late 1950s that haunted houses as a major attraction began to appear, focusing first on California. Sponsored by the Children's Health Home Junior Auxiliary, the San Mateo Haunted House opened in 1957. The San Bernardino Assistance League Haunted House opened in 1958. Home haunts began appearing across the country during 1962 and 1963. In 1964, the San Manteo Haunted House opened, as well as the Children's Museum Haunted House in Indianapolis. [199]

The haunted house as an American cultural icon can be attributed to the opening of the Haunted Mansion in Disneyland on 12 August 1969. [200] Knott's Berry Farm began hosting its own Halloween night attraction, Knott's Scary Farm, which opened in 1973. [201] Evangelical Christians adopted a form of these attractions by opening one of the first "hell houses" in 1972. [202]

The first Halloween haunted house run by a nonprofit organization was produced in 1970 by the Sycamore-Deer Park Jaycees in Clifton, Ohio. It was cosponsored by WSAI, an AM radio station broadcasting out of Cincinnati, Ohio. It was last produced in 1982. [203] Other Jaycees followed suit with their own versions after the success of the Ohio house. The March of Dimes copyrighted a "Mini haunted house for the March of Dimes" in 1976 and began fundraising through their local chapters by conducting haunted houses soon after. Although they apparently quit supporting this type of event nationally sometime in the 1980s, some March of Dimes haunted houses have persisted until today. [204]

On the evening of 11 May 1984, in Jackson Township, New Jersey, the Haunted Castle (Six Flags Great Adventure) caught fire. As a result of the fire, eight teenagers perished. [205] The backlash to the tragedy was a tightening of regulations relating to safety, building codes and the frequency of inspections of attractions nationwide. The smaller venues, especially the nonprofit attractions, were unable to compete financially, and the better funded commercial enterprises filled the vacuum. [206] [207] Facilities that were once able to avoid regulation because they were considered to be temporary installations now had to adhere to the stricter codes required of permanent attractions. [208] [209] [210]

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, theme parks entered the business seriously. Six Flags Fright Fest began in 1986 and Universal Studios Florida began Halloween Horror Nights in 1991. Knott's Scary Farm experienced a surge in attendance in the 1990s as a result of America's obsession with Halloween as a cultural event. Theme parks have played a major role in globalizing the holiday. Universal Studios Singapore and Universal Studios Japan both participate, while Disney now mounts Mickey's Not-So-Scary Halloween Party events at its parks in Paris, Hong Kong and Tokyo, as well as in the United States. [211] The theme park haunts are by far the largest, both in scale and attendance. [212]

On All Hallows' Eve, many Western Christian denominations encourage abstinence from meat, giving rise to a variety of vegetarian foods associated with this day. [213]

Because in the Northern Hemisphere Halloween comes in the wake of the yearly apple harvest, candy apples (known as toffee apples outside North America), caramel apples or taffy apples are common Halloween treats made by rolling whole apples in a sticky sugar syrup, sometimes followed by rolling them in nuts.

At one time, candy apples were commonly given to trick-or-treating children, but the practice rapidly waned in the wake of widespread rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor blades in the apples in the United States. [214] While there is evidence of such incidents, [215] relative to the degree of reporting of such cases, actual cases involving malicious acts are extremely rare and have never resulted in serious injury. Nonetheless, many parents assumed that such heinous practices were rampant because of the mass media. At the peak of the hysteria, some hospitals offered free X-rays of children's Halloween hauls in order to find evidence of tampering. Virtually all of the few known candy poisoning incidents involved parents who poisoned their own children's candy. [216]

One custom that persists in modern-day Ireland is the baking (or more often nowadays, the purchase) of a barmbrack (Irish: báirín breac), which is a light fruitcake, into which a plain ring, a coin, and other charms are placed before baking. [217] It is considered fortunate to be the lucky one who finds it. [217] It has also been said that those who get a ring will find their true love in the ensuing year. This is similar to the tradition of king cake at the festival of Epiphany.

List of foods associated with Halloween:

    (Ireland) (Great Britain) /toffee apples (Great Britain and Ireland) , candy corn, candy pumpkins (North America)
  • Monkey nuts (peanuts in their shells) (Ireland and Scotland) (Ireland see below) /candy
  • Novelty candy shaped like skulls, pumpkins, bats, worms, etc.
  • Roasted pumpkin seeds
  • Roasted sweet corn

On Hallowe'en (All Hallows' Eve), in Poland, believers were once taught to pray out loud as they walk through the forests in order that the souls of the dead might find comfort in Spain, Christian priests in tiny villages toll their church bells in order to remind their congregants to remember the dead on All Hallows' Eve. [218] In Ireland, and among immigrants in Canada, a custom includes the Christian practice of abstinence, keeping All Hallows' Eve as a meat-free day, and serving pancakes or colcannon instead. [219] In Mexico children make an altar to invite the return of the spirits of dead children (angelitos). [220]

The Christian Church traditionally observed Hallowe'en through a vigil. Worshippers prepared themselves for feasting on the following All Saints' Day with prayers and fasting. [221] This church service is known as the Vigil of All Hallows or the Vigil of All Saints [222] [223] an initiative known as Night of Light seeks to further spread the Vigil of All Hallows throughout Christendom. [224] [225] After the service, "suitable festivities and entertainments" often follow, as well as a visit to the graveyard or cemetery, where flowers and candles are often placed in preparation for All Hallows' Day. [226] [227] In Finland, because so many people visit the cemeteries on All Hallows' Eve to light votive candles there, they "are known as valomeri, or seas of light". [228]

Today, Christian attitudes towards Halloween are diverse. In the Anglican Church, some dioceses have chosen to emphasize the Christian traditions associated with All Hallow's Eve. [229] [230] Some of these practices include praying, fasting and attending worship services. [1] [2] [3]

O LORD our God, increase, we pray thee, and multiply upon us the gifts of thy grace: that we, who do prevent the glorious festival of all thy Saints, may of thee be enabled joyfully to follow them in all virtuous and godly living. Through Jesus Christ, Our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end. Amen. —Collect of the Vigil of All Saints, The Anglican Breviary [231]

Other Protestant Christians also celebrate All Hallows' Eve as Reformation Day, a day to remember the Protestant Reformation, alongside All Hallow's Eve or independently from it. [232] This is because Martin Luther is said to have nailed his Ninety-five Theses to All Saints' Church in Wittenberg on All Hallows' Eve. [233] Often, "Harvest Festivals" or "Reformation Festivals" are held on All Hallows' Eve, in which children dress up as Bible characters or Reformers. [234] In addition to distributing candy to children who are trick-or-treating on Hallowe'en, many Christians also provide gospel tracts to them. One organization, the American Tract Society, stated that around 3 million gospel tracts are ordered from them alone for Hallowe'en celebrations. [235] Others order Halloween-themed Scripture Candy to pass out to children on this day. [236] [237]

Some Christians feel concerned about the modern celebration of Halloween because they feel it trivializes – or celebrates – paganism, the occult, or other practices and cultural phenomena deemed incompatible with their beliefs. [238] Father Gabriele Amorth, an exorcist in Rome, has said, "if English and American children like to dress up as witches and devils on one night of the year that is not a problem. If it is just a game, there is no harm in that." [239] In more recent years, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston has organized a "Saint Fest" on Halloween. [240] Similarly, many contemporary Protestant churches view Halloween as a fun event for children, holding events in their churches where children and their parents can dress up, play games, and get candy for free. To these Christians, Halloween holds no threat to the spiritual lives of children: being taught about death and mortality, and the ways of the Celtic ancestors actually being a valuable life lesson and a part of many of their parishioners' heritage. [241] Christian minister Sam Portaro wrote that Halloween is about using "humor and ridicule to confront the power of death". [242]

In the Roman Catholic Church, Halloween's Christian connection is acknowledged, and Halloween celebrations are common in many Catholic parochial schools in the United States. [243] [244] Many fundamentalist and evangelical churches use "Hell houses" and comic-style tracts in order to make use of Halloween's popularity as an opportunity for evangelism. [245] Others consider Halloween to be completely incompatible with the Christian faith due to its putative origins in the Festival of the Dead celebration. [246] Indeed, even though Eastern Orthodox Christians observe All Hallows' Day on the First Sunday after Pentecost, The Eastern Orthodox Church recommends the observance of Vespers or a Paraklesis on the Western observance of All Hallows' Eve, out of the pastoral need to provide an alternative to popular celebrations. [247]

Judaism

According to Alfred J. Kolatch in the Second Jewish Book of Why, in Judaism, Halloween is not permitted by Jewish Halakha because it violates Leviticus 18:3, which forbids Jews from partaking in gentile customs. Many Jews observe Yizkor communally four times a year, which is vaguely similar to the observance of Allhallowtide in Christianity, in the sense that prayers are said for both "martyrs and for one's own family". [248] Nevertheless, many American Jews celebrate Halloween, disconnected from its Christian origins. [249] Reform Rabbi Jeffrey Goldwasser has said that "There is no religious reason why contemporary Jews should not celebrate Halloween" while Orthodox Rabbi Michael Broyde has argued against Jews' observing the holiday. [250]

Islam

Sheikh Idris Palmer, author of A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam, has ruled that Muslims should not participate in Halloween, stating that "participation in Halloween is worse than participation in Christmas, Easter, . it is more sinful than congratulating the Christians for their prostration to the crucifix". [251] It has also been ruled to be haram by the National Fatwa Council of Malaysia because of its alleged pagan roots stating "Halloween is celebrated using a humorous theme mixed with horror to entertain and resist the spirit of death that influence humans". [252] [253] Dar Al-Ifta Al-Missriyyah disagrees provided the celebration is not referred to as an 'eid' and that behaviour remains in line with Islamic principles. [254]

Hinduism

Hindus remember the dead during the festival of Pitru Paksha, during which Hindus pay homage to and perform a ceremony "to keep the souls of their ancestors at rest". It is celebrated in the Hindu month of Bhadrapada, usually in mid-September. [255] The celebration of the Hindu festival Diwali sometimes conflicts with the date of Halloween but some Hindus choose to participate in the popular customs of Halloween. [256] Other Hindus, such as Soumya Dasgupta, have opposed the celebration on the grounds that Western holidays like Halloween have "begun to adversely affect our indigenous festivals". [257]

Neopaganism

There is no consistent rule or view on Halloween amongst those who describe themselves as Neopagans or Wiccans. Some Neopagans do not observe Halloween, but instead observe Samhain on 1 November, [258] some neopagans do enjoy Halloween festivities, stating that one can observe both "the solemnity of Samhain in addition to the fun of Halloween". Some neopagans are opposed to the celebration of Hallowe'en, stating that it "trivializes Samhain", [259] and "avoid Halloween, because of the interruptions from trick or treaters". [260] The Manitoban writes that "Wiccans don't officially celebrate Halloween, despite the fact that 31 Oct. will still have a star beside it in any good Wiccan's day planner. Starting at sundown, Wiccans celebrate a holiday known as Samhain. Samhain actually comes from old Celtic traditions and is not exclusive to Neopagan religions like Wicca. While the traditions of this holiday originate in Celtic countries, modern day Wiccans don't try to historically replicate Samhain celebrations. Some traditional Samhain rituals are still practised, but at its core, the period is treated as a time to celebrate darkness and the dead – a possible reason why Samhain can be confused with Halloween celebrations." [258]

The traditions and importance of Halloween vary greatly among countries that observe it. In Scotland and Ireland, traditional Halloween customs include children dressing up in costume going "guising", holding parties, while other practices in Ireland include lighting bonfires, and having firework displays. [151] [261] [262] In Brittany children would play practical jokes by setting candles inside skulls in graveyards to frighten visitors. [263] Mass transatlantic immigration in the 19th century popularized Halloween in North America, and celebration in the United States and Canada has had a significant impact on how the event is observed in other nations. [151] This larger North American influence, particularly in iconic and commercial elements, has extended to places such as Ecuador, Chile, [264] Australia, [265] New Zealand, [266] (most) continental Europe, Finland, [267] Japan, and other parts of East Asia. [268] In the Philippines, during Halloween, Filipinos return to their hometowns and purchase candles and flowers, [269] in preparation for the following All Saints Day (Araw ng mga Patay) on 1 November and All Souls Day – though it falls on 2 November, most Filipinos observe it on the day before. [270]


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